Because of the demographic to which many of our favorite series appeal, implied deaths have become a norm in flagship pieces such as One Piece and Naruto.
In One Piece there are many implied deaths during arcs like Water 7, Impel Down, The Paramount War, etc. I mean how do you feel knowing that Luffy murdered a large number of people while trying to save his brother, i.e. the guards who fell to their deaths in the boiling water/blood, soldiers and pirates during the rescue, etc.?
In Naruto countless Shinobi die without so much as an introduction, whilst a main character like Neji is used as an emotional tool for the readers.
Do you think it’s OK for authors to use secondary characters’ deaths merely as fodder, and use main character deaths as an emotional tool? We aren’t saying that those moments aren’t fun (like when a planet blows up in DBZ) but isn’t it a little bit cavalier in teaching kids in about how little value some lives have, versus the weight that the lives of “important” people have? It would be absolutely impossible to give a voice to every character, and the deaths of the main characters have weight because of our attachment to them. Still, it sometimes bothers me that these fun-loving characters murder all the time. Just a thought.
Do you, our esteemed patrons, ever feel the same?
Note: This blog post was devised and written by James and his crew of two. If you're also interested in submitting your ideas for a blog post, you can find all the instructions on how to become active yourself here: http://mangastream.com/blog/39
While browsing through TED I came across an interesting talk titled “The Visual Magic of Comics”, by Scott McCloud, an American cartoonist who is better known for his nonfiction books about comics. Among the topics he touched on was his categorization of different types of art. McCloud calls it the “four tribes of art”, which can be applied to any medium of art including music, literature, film, and manga.
As the label suggests, there are four groups in McCloud’s classification. The first group of artists are called animists. This group is best characterized by their devotion to transparency of content. They emphasize the substance that comprises their works. The second group, classicists, are devoted to beauty and craft. They seek to perfect the composition of their art, and this goal remains priority above all on their list. The third group, iconoclasts, are devoted to the truth and nothing else. They seek to portray the human experience as it is, as raw as it can be in its truest form. They are couriers carrying authentic messages of the human condition. Last but not least, the formalists are distinguished from the others in their love for experimenting with their art. They are devoted to form, which includes details of style and technique in their art and those of others.
It is important at this point to clarify that no artist can be described as being only “classicist” or only “animist”. This classification is useful because it allows us to identify qualities that every artist possesses, only in different proportions. Needless to say these proportions are what make each artist unique.
With my newly acquired awareness of McCloud’s four tribes of art, I couldn’t help classifying every manga that crossed my mind. For most shonen manga such as One Piece, Naruto, and Bleach, the authors seem to have equal proportions of animist and classicist qualities. Although the plot is crucial, as it is in every story telling medium, because manga is a visual medium its art is equally important, especially because it lays out the world the reader comes into contact with.
With certain seinen manga such as Berserk, I see more of the classicist qualities. The artwork is beautiful, and you can immediately appreciate the amount of effort that must have went in the process of drawing each chapter. The iconoclast qualities of devotion to the truth is also more prevalent in the genre of seinen manga, such as one of my most favorite works, Monster by Urasawa Naoki.
Formalist qualities are very hard to see in manga. Many prominent manga authors have experimented with their technique and developed a style of their own, but in many of the mainstream manga that dominate the markets today, art styles have become standardized. It would be more interesting to see more experimentation on the market, because it is something that has become all too rare.
Scott McCloud’s classification of art gives us a great way to think about manga. Can you identify your favorite works as having the qualities of one or more of these tribes of art? I would love to hear about everyone’s opinions.
Note: This blog post was devised and written by Brian.
Every long-running manga generally develops a formula. It is a dreaded, yet sometimes necessary tactic for lengthening a manga. Some mangaka rely too heavily on the formula, and it makes the story stagnant. Others figure out how to keep it exciting, even if the reader knows the general formula. Below are some of the formulas I have noticed in the Big 3, plus a note on DBZ and HxH.
Bleach: Fight a super-strong enemy, and right when things look really bad, get a mega boost and overpower them. Get the enemy against the ropes, only for the enemy to reveal they were hiding their true power all along. Hero gets beaten nearly to death (but you are made to think they are dead). Then another hero (who just got a power boost from secret training) saves the day. Rinse repeat, and nobody but the bad guys die.
Naruto: Present an enemy. That's not your real enemy, but you won't know that until you defeat the decoy. Use team effort to defeat the decoy. Sometime between defeating the decoy and defeating the true enemy, everyone else gets overpowered and they put their trust in Naruto. Naruto has beefed up sometime before the final battle, and OP-Naruto saves the day.
One Piece: The Strawhat Crew is going somewhere, but ADD Luffy gets distracted and decides to do a side mission. The crew eventually splits up (Zoro always gets lost, Sanji always gets distracted by a girl). All of the crew fight someone of greater strength and just barely manage to win. They move on to the next place, slightly stronger, and with a bigger bounty on their hands. (They may or may not have picked up a crew member.)
Hunter x Hunter / Dragonball Z: You fight. You get defeated. You train. You get stronger. Some people die. You fight again. You win. (One story is severely more complex than the other though.)
Do you agree with the assessment, or have you found a formula of your own, maybe for a different series? What are your favorite and / or most despised formulas? What do you think about formulas in general? A necessary evil? Did you spot any exceptions to the listed formulas above?
Note: This blog post was devised and written by bijun.
I want to thank all those of you who submitted an article for the blog. Sadly, out of the 53 we got so far, we can only post one at a time. We got a few pretty good ones and an even bigger number of articles that have great ideas in them but need some rewriting and sometimes shifting of focus to make them work. There's also quite a bunch that won't make it on the site, mostly for the same simple reasons, which I'd like to mention here so a) the same mistakes hopefully won't be done again and b) you'll understand our reasons better, which I feel we owe to all of you who put in an effort writing these up.
Most of the articles that we won't be putting up were still a fun read. They were, but they didn't provide much of a basis to discuss anything further. In fact, that's the main issue with most of them. Neglecting the discussion aspect is a big problem, we don't want to just provide a platform for stating opinions.
Also we're not going to put up reviews. Neither reviews of (non-mainstream) manga, nor chapter reviews. For chapter reviews, you got discussion threads at the end of each chapter and for manga... well, we might have a special and post one or two of those, but not right now, not while we have plenty of material that we know people will definitely be interested in talking about.
There were a few that were just way too short, or not thought out at all, but fortunately, they were the exception. In general, I'm pretty happy with what we got and I thoroughly enjoyed reading them all.
The submission for blog topics is still open and will stay so until further notice. If you're interested, check out this blog post explaining all the details: http://mangastream.com/blog/39
And since I've been all big on encouraging you to concentrate on asking questions in this blog post, I've also got one for you: Would it really bother you not knowing whether your submission will be posted eventually or whether it's just been sorted out for one of the reasons stated above?
Three thoughts from me on that: Emailing everyone back is a pain in the neck when I also have lots of other tasks here, like working on the manga every week. Not a big fan of template-emails, I still treat emails as something personal and would rather keep it that way. And finally, for a number of them I just don't know yet - there are quite a few with very similar topics and eventually one will probably be chosen; and it also depends on how many and what kind of quality submissions we get in the future - there are factors involved that make it hard to tell for many of them.
So, truth be told, I've been running out of ideas for blog entries lately. No surprise there really, I barely manage to squeeze out any at all in between working on various series. Could really need some help with that, so I figured I'd ask our community; in other words - you lovely lot.
Some organizational things first, or general things to consider:
If the above didn't scare you off, feel free to email your blog post article to -- smokybarrettms (at) gmail (dot) com -- please put 'blog post' in the title of your email so it doesn't land in the spam folder. Also don't forget to give your article a title.
And I probably shouldn't have to say this but before anyone asks - of course we'll give credit where credit is due. You'll be clearly stated as the author of the post, just let us know which moniker you want to go by.
It's that time again! We're looking to add a few more people to the team, mainly people who can help with Jump (because soon we'll be working on five Jump series and that's... a lot). That means we need people who can be available for a few hours any time between 6:30am GMT to 3:00pm GMT every week on Wednesday. The two main positions we're looking to fill are:
Redrawers - are probably the highest demand right now. Feel free to download the test and give it a try even if you have no experience because we're likely to offer you some training either way - redrawing mainly needs a good eye for detail. The main thing to aim for, when you remove the overlay text, is a seamless transition between your art and the mangaka's.
Test: Download this file, redraw the page and send it to: smokybarrettms (at) gmail (dot) com
Typesetters - this one you really do need some previous experience for because training people from scratch takes a huge amount of time and effort. You do not need to use any particular fonts, just go for something simple. We'll be judging based on shapes and sizes for now.
Test: Download this file, typeset all four pages and send them to: smokybarrettms (at) gmail (dot) com
Feel free to tell me a little bit about yourself and any relevant experience you may have; things like timezone and schedule are fairly essential for me to know. We very much appreciate everyone who takes the time to apply so thank you!
Oh and, exceptional editors are always welcome too - if you want to apply as a cleaner, just send me an email.
Imagine your favorite mangaka calls you up and asks you for your help. He's wrapping up his current series and really needs ideas for his next manga. What would you suggest?
I'm really interested in hearing some of your story ideas, I love reading short plot-overviews, and it's fun to find out what kind of stories all of you would write, what you all are into. Maybe there's some kind of plot idea that you've been spinning in your head for years?
Are there plots or certain kinds of characters that you feel are too rare in mainstream series and if they are present for once, they are done really badly and you'd write them completely differently?
But also, are there any aspects about shonen manga that you feel are really overused and you'd make a great effort avoiding them?
Looking forward to your ideas!
As the title says, what's your favorite sports series? My personal top three are;
1. Hajime no Ippo
2. Captain Tsubasa
3. Eyeshield 21
Now, don't judge me on Captain Tsubasa, I was little so the series holds nostalgic value. Ippo I discovered pretty late, but it's my favorite sports series by far. Heck, it's probably among my top three series of all times.
What is it that makes a sports series more enjoyable than others? Honestly, the part I enjoy most is humor; somehow sports series simply sem to have a lot more room that you can fill with jokes and Takamura-moments. One thing I don't enjoy? Dragged out scenes. You know what I'm talking about if you also read Ippo. On the other hand, they don't seem all that bad when you read a big amount of chapters in one go instead of following it weekly. And if you really want to experience dragged out scenes, read one of them football/soccer mangas like Captain Tsubasa, where the field appears to be several kilometers long in each direction and they just keep running and running and running and running and...
Now I lost my train of thought. Not that really ever had one - oh yeah, I was saying, or rather asking - which are your favorite sports series, and what is it about them that makes them so special to you? Let me know in the comments!
I've been going through some old favorites of mine and wondered what they'd be like if they continued until today. Series like Psyren come to mind, which sadly got cancelled too early and still felt like it had a lot of potential to explore. Though series that ran for ages but eventually ended, like Dragon Ball, are also interesting to think about.
So here's some questions to ponder about:
Personally, Psyren and Gantz are two series I'd have really liked to see for a while longer. And I'd like to mention Berserk and Hunter x Hunter here too... while they haven't officially ended, their mini- and maxi-hiatuses are as bad if not worse, imo. T_T
Been a while since the last blog post, huh? Well, I've been busy reading and re-reading quite a few books and studying the representation of protagonists and antagonists, mainly. Which made me think of characters in manga and leads me to this question: Who are your favorite lead characters, and who are your favorite bad guys?
Personally, I can't help but say Goku, first. The archetype of typical shonen manga protagonist - a glutton, a tad slow, a guy who can make friends out of enemies and improves every time he fights a stronger enemy to match their strength.
And then there's the classics, Spike Spiegel from Cowboy Bebop, Alucard from Hellsing, Mugen from Samurai Champloo - I could go on and you'd keep noticing how they're mostly seinen series. Though before I move on to the bad guys, as a sort of lead-over I have to mention my favorite character - Takamura (from Hajime no Ippo), for sure.
So, bad guys. Vegeta anyone? Killing your pal and one of the last 3 (known) survivors of your race because he can't beat someone who's obviously stronger than him? Pretty evil, in a good way.
In fact, let me stop here and let you carry on, I'm more curious of who you can think of and I'll probably use your comments to re-read or re-watch a series or two. :)
I've been re-reading a bunch of the old mangas on my shelf and had this question on my mind that I wanted to ask you all. What kind of arcs are your favorite?
Personally, I'm really into tournaments. Really, really into it. Think of the Tenkaichi Bukokai tournaments in Dragon Ball, especially the first 3, where Jackie Chun, Tenshinhan and, finally, Goku win - in that order. Or the Hunter exam, in Hunter x Hunter - and the Greed Island arc, which was a sort-of tournament, too.
The Chunin exam was also easily one of my favorite arcs in Naruto and the recent arc in One Piece is pretty awesome too, imho. Though One Piece is a whole different story; it basically felt like a tournament-kind of thing this entire time - they move from island to island, fighting new enemies on each one of them. Plus you get changes in setting the entire time, which makes it particularly interesting.
In general though, I seem to much prefer the beginning of a series rather than when it gets to the final fights and climaxes. The first half of Naruto for example was just a lot more enjoyable (when they were actually sort of fighting like ninjas
with superpowers) than the stuff we got now where they are so close to firing kamehameha's and destroying the whole planet, Freeza-style.
Does anyone else feel like that? What kind of arcs are your favorite - or are there any particular arcs that are your all-time favorites?
Don't say the Golden Age arc in Berserk, that one's too obvious.
Which of the three devil fruit classes is superior to the others?
I've been rewatching One Piece recently, really appreciating Oda's creativity in coming up with all those unique devil fruits - particularly in the Paramecia class. So I've got two questions on my mind that I wanted to ask you all; which of the three classes do you think is 'the strongest', and which new devil fruit powers can you come up with?
Personally, I have a hard time making up my mind. Clearly Logia seem the most overpowered at first and they definitely were for the first half imo, before the whole Haki concept got introduced and relativized a lot of their strengths. Until that point I was always wondering how Luffy would ever be able to fight Smoker on equal footing.
But then Vergo showed us that not only can Smoker be hit, his ability is actually a weakness - turning into smoke meant there was more area that can potentially be targeted. Is Logia then only useful against enemies who don't have any Busoshoku Haki, or a weaker one than the Logia user? We're talking about how useful it is in a fight here, since Aokiji's turning an ocean into ice is clearly pretty damn useful any time.
Anyway, then we have the Zoan type. When the different types were introduced I was quick to
misjudge that it was the weakest of the three, but not I'm not so sure anymore. The usefulness of the transformations aside, the biggest benefit I see is their increase in physical strength. I mean, imagine Luffy having a Zoan, and turning into a mountain of muscle - or how it would enhance Zoro's strength? Part of why Rob Lucci was so damn strong was because he could turn into a beast 5+ times the size of his human body. Now that Haki seems to determine a person's strength more than anything - doesn't it make Zoan that more valuable?
And finally, the Paramecia class. My personal favorite, because of it's diversity. There's powers that seem at first pretty much useless (think Luffy before he mastered the ability), and there's powers that are really hard to find a good strategy against. Though that's also part of the weakness; once you know how a Paramecia works, you can come up with a good plan against it. Like knocking out Sugar to break the spell. In a way it limits the user's range of techniques, all Miss Valentine could do for example was crush people to death with her weight-shifting ability.
Though it also means physically 'weak' characters can become pretty strong fighters - Robin doesn't possess superhuman strength but with her ability she can take on a number of physically stronger fighters at the same time quite easily. The range of different Paramecia is quite stunning, from Magellan's poison to Basil Hawkins' voodoo dolls to Law's Ope Ope no Mi, or Capone Bege's obscure harboring his personal army in his body ability, there seems to be an endless amount of possibilites.
And that brings us back to the question I asked in the beginning, which you probably forgot by now, so allow me to pose it again. Which devil fruit powers can you come up with? And which of the three classes do you see ahead of the other two in terms of potential benefit to the user in battle?
In one of the previous blog posts we've been speculating how the series Naruto could go on after Madara is defeated. That got me thinking about all kinds of possibilities and one that I didn't mention now 'cause I figured it'd be worth its own post, is a re-imagining of the story. Now, I know it won't happen, they won't do it. But still, it's a fun discussion to have.
How would scenario X have went if it wasn't (group) Y who fought Z but (group) Q. There's just so many situations where we got the match-ups we got, and it could've turned out completely differently if somebody else had 'went'. Personally I enjoy that idea most when it comes to the Chunin-exams, arguably my favorite part of the series - back then I was *really* into it. What if Sasuke had fought Gaara earlier? What if Naruto would have had to fight Hinata?
Though you can also apply it to the likes of Akatsuki - would Asuma have died if, say, Kakashi was there? Or some other specialized Ninja who would've had that one ability that would've flipped the tides? What ability would that have been? The kage mane technique was already plenty useful. Or was it merely a matter of having insufficient intel?
What if Sasuke would've been the one to fight Pain, at a stage in the series where it would've been possible. What if Itachi decided to spend the last days of his life fighting Madara, would he have had the chance to stop the plan in its motion, not allowing Madara to gain the strength he has now? Couldn't he have gotten help to achieve that?
Which match-ups that never happened would you have really enjoyed seeing happening? And how do you think would they have turned out? Let's share some scenarios and have some fun discussing, shall we?
So the secret's out, it's Toriko that we picked up. It all started with a question on facebook I posted - which series would you like us to pick up the most. We received tons of feedback, both on that facebook post and via email. Knowing what the fans want us to do the most, we discussed our options and the staff's favorites, and came to the obvious conclusion - we had to pick up Toriko.
We've all been big fans of the series for a long time; back when we had to drop it we did so with a heavy heart, it was inevitable at the time, as we had difficulties with getting a translator for it and also carried 6 (!) Jump series at the same time, burning out the staff quicker than a wax candle. But now, we're all set up for one more Jump series and can fully dedicate ourselves to it. We got a new, old translator (welcome back, dzydzydino!) and are up to the game this time.
Oh and, the timing could not have been better either. Toriko just came back with the 2nd Act of the manga last week, which is why we decided to do last week's chapter as well. It's definitely worth a re-read if you've read it elsewhere already, I promise you will enjoy the extra effort we put into it during the past couple of days.
Finally, I'm not gonna promise that we'll release this early every week, but we will definitely try and stick to an early Wednesday schedule, so come by next week and until then, enjoy the two chapters! We certainly did!
In this blog post we want to provide an overview of our projects and how things are coming along. This is also to answer all the questions of those asking for specific series, though it won't really answer much, it will let you know why some things are 'late'.
First of all though, I should very briefly explain the different steps involved in scanlation. If you know how the scanlation process works, you can skip this part and move on to the actual list of series below.
Everything begins with getting the RAWs, ie going out to buy the magazines the series are in and scanning them in. We rely on RAW providers for this - in other words, this step is out of our control. We get RAWs as quickly as possible, and the moment we get them, we begin working on them. If we don't have RAWs for a series, we can't do anything but wait, that's all.
As soon as we have them, we send them to the translators. This is also arguably out of our hands; while the translators are part of our team, they are still individuals who are doing this single task. Think of them like goalkeepers in football, they're part of the team yet have a completely different function.
Simultaneously, we begin cleaning the chapters. All series are published in phone-book sized weekly or monthly magazines, printed on paper of a far worse quality than toilet-paper - which is understandable, seeing how the circulation numbers are in the millions. Either way, cleaning up the images of a standard 18 page long chapter takes about 5-7 hours, usually split between 2-3 cleaners.
Another thing that begins as soon as pages are cleaned is redrawing. Redrawing is basically all about erasing Japanese text that was within the panels, on the art. After erasing it, we fill up the blank spots, usually by re-drawing those parts. Small redraws can take 2-5 minutes, really big and annoying ones that cover half a page with really detailed art can take easily a whole day, but we try our best.
One way to make redrawing easier is typesetting. We can only start doing that after we received the translation, naturally, as typesetting means putting the English text on the pages. We take great care to place the text exactly where the Japanese original was, for stylistic reasons but also to cover up big parts of the spots that need redraws. This isn't always easy, as English text goes left to right while Japanese goes top to bottom.
Except for 2-3 series which have a dedicated proofreader, the typesetters also make sure to quality check the chapter, reading what they are putting in the bubbles and looking out for noise or smudges that were missed during cleaning. And with that, the process is complete, the chapter released and updates about it are posted on the website.
Phew, that look longer than expected, although it was an extremely summarized version. Now, on to our current line-up and their status.
One Piece, Naruto, Bleach, Fairy Tail, Übel Blatt, Attack on Titan, UQ Holder, Area D, Claymore and History's Strongest Disciple Kenichi -> We're all caught up on these series and waiting for the next RAWs.
Green Blood, Hajime no Ippo, ReMember, Rock Lee's Springtime of Youth-> For all these series, we're currently waiting for translations.
The Heroic Legend of Arslan -> This series is currently being redrawn. It has very many pages that need redraws and we'd really need 2-3 new, active redrawers who can help out with difficult redraws. Applications are welcome.
Attack On Titan Before The Fall -> We are going to finish the 4th chapter, but will sadly have to drop this great series after. The amount of redraws and difficult to clean pages is too taxing on our already understaffed crew. We may consider picking it back up if we ever find ourselves in a situation where we have plenty of active redrawers.
Dragon Ball SD -> We have decided to drop this one as well. Aside of the redraws, there was also too little interest by both, the staff members and you, the readers, so we decided it be best to let go of it.
Mahouka Koukou no Rettousei -> We picked this one up on the request of the leader of the group Mangaholic. He's been part of our staff for quite a while, so we did not mind hosting it (with the intention of giving it some extra publicity and attention). Unfortunately he ran into some private difficulties lately, and we wish him the best to recover from it all and hopefully soon return to get this series back on track.
D.Gray-man, Hunter x Hunter -> As far as Hunter x Hunter is concerned, we're still huge fans and will work on it the moment it returns. As for D.Gray-man, I'm not sure if we would pick it back up again or not, but either way, both series are on hiatus right now and we have no information whatsoever when either will return, unfortunately.
That's all! If you have any further questions about the series I mentioned or if I missed any series, let me know in the comments! But please, do not ask us to pick any other series up.
Oh, on that note - there might be a series that we'll pick up very soon. The feedback we received on facebook the other day was very clear and we had a long discussion following it. I won't give it away right now, so stay tuned to find out more about it!
One Piece has it all; a great cast of characters with insanely creative (devil) powers, an exciting environment with a whole world to discover and a story that is so intriguing, and at times touching, that once you begin reading, you can't put it aside.
One of the things I really like about One Piece is how, occasionally, it feels very familiar on a level that's hard to understand. That is, until you realize how many references it has to the culture us Western fans grew up with - a fact surprisingly many fans whom I spoke to seem completely unaware of.
Most notably there are many references and pointers to fairy tales, particularly the ones collected and written down by the Grimm Brothers. To start off with a rather obscure and less well-known one, we have the tale of 'The Singing Bone' - I don't think I need to say any more, you all know who's meant.
We have a reference to Rapunzel (which yes, I know is heavily influenced by the Persian tale of Rudāba) in Shirahoshi, who has also been locked away in a tower by her father. There are subtle hints at Snow White on two instances as well - one, Alvida's line in the beginning of the series, going 'Who's the most beautiful on all the seas', not unlike Snow White's step-mother asking her mirror the same question. The other one is Doc Q giving away poisoned apples on Jaya.
There are references to Little Red Riding Hood during the Enies Lobby arc; when Jabra (the Wolf Zoan member of the CP9) attempts to lie to Sanji (who introduced himself as 'The Hunter') about being Nico Robin's brother he is shown in his half-wolf form with Robin in a red-hooded cloak. Finally, there are also several instances where Oda mentions the Town Musicians of Bremen, including the cover of chapter 34 and a color spread in chapter 604.
There are references to other, non-Grimm fairy tales as well, for example Jack and the Beanstalk in the Skypiea Arc, or Pinocchio (Usopp) but also a bunch of biblical stories, like Noah's Ark (even named 'Noah' in the series) or the story of Jonah who supposedly lived in a whale (he'd have certainly had space in Laboon - a real whale, not so much...).
Other allusions to Western culture, media or even locations include Jurassic Park (Little Garden Arc), Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer and the Abominable Snowman (both Chopper), Santa Claus (Dr Kureha coming down from the mountain on a sleigh), Venice (anyone who's been there can confirm that Water Seven is based on it), Captain Hook (Crocodile), Zorro (Zoro), Melville's novel Moby Dick (the name of Whitebeard's ship) and probably many more.
Those are all the ones I could think of. Can you think of any more? Did you notice them while reading or watching the anime? Most of them are pretty straight-forward, but Oda manages to give them such a twist that they can be easy to miss. And what I've been thinking most about while writing up the above - which references are yet to come? Which famous fairy tales are left?
Update: Wow, some of the comparisons you guys brought up are pretty cool. Especially Eric Ester Burgos, big shout out to you man, I really enjoyed your post and everyone interested in cultural references should definitely click his name and go read it.
For the last couple of months the series Naruto feels like it's coming to an end - at least to me it does, and I'm sure to many of you as well. One of the two main antagonists, Obito, has already been turned into a good guy again and now there's only really Madara left to defeat for everybody to be happy and live in peace (and boredom).
I know the series has a lot of haters, as does anything or anybody who's remotely popular or 'mainstream' in this world, but I'm actually still a fan. I admit, it's not as exciting as it once used to be (think Chunin exam, or fighting Akatsuki, in particular Hidan -> best fight ever) but it's still a great series.
Now, I have mixed feelings on this subject. If you have read or watched Bakuman, you'll know what I mean immediately... the question I'm posing is - what should be done with a series when it's reaching its end? Jump tends to stretch out series as long as possible when they're popular - think Dragon Ball, it could've ended after the 3rd Tenkaichi Budokai, or after Freeza, or after Cell, or... instead, it got milked so much they even created DBGT, without Toriyama even wanting to write it, all he did was watch over the anime to make sure they don't butcher it.
At least, that's one way of looking at it. I was quite young when I watched Dragon Ball and DBZ, so it never felt like it was being stretched out to me. I just wanted to continue watching this awesome series I really liked; as long as some of the main characters were in it, I was happy. Even then I thought DBGT was a bit lame, but SSJ4 easily made up for it.
What I'm trying to say is - I don't mind all that much when the life-cycle of a series gets prolonged. For those of you who are purists, you can stop reading Bleach after Aizen's defeat and you have a series with a 'good' ending. Everybody else can enjoy seeing their favorite manga characters for another couple years run in a weekly magazine, it's that simple.
So, going back to Naruto, I've been thinking for a while of possible ways for the series to keep going after they defeat Madara.
- For one, there's still Oro - and he's been acting weirdly compliant and awfully nice lately, and I don't quite buy the nice guy act yet. Turning him into the main antagonist may be a little lame though, since he's already held that position for a while and he'd need some serious power-ups, too. (like swallowing up Madara and evolving... lots of training arcs and defeating his minions to be followed)
- Then there's the classic possibility - a long time skip. Say, 15-20 years. The current generation's kids would take over and new, less powerful villains could be established. I know, it's not idea. I'd hate for the current main guys to have to make room for a new bunch of people - though I'd argue Dragon Ball didn't do too badly with this, but Naruto has a far bigger amount of people in it. It'd definitely be difficult, and I can well imagine most of you not liking this at all.
- The last possibility I have on my mind right now is another 'common enemy' type of character emerging. When you look at a map of the Naruto universe you'll notice that it doesn't cover all that much. The main countries seem to be positioned in one corner of the world, so there's still many other countries out there that might decide on attacking the Ninja-countries. Depending on what technologies those guys use, it could give the series Steampunk elements, or Ninjas vs Vikings, or...
Yeah I know, that last one doesn't sound too great. So! What do you think? Is the series best done justice by ending it after defeating this last bad guy and some touching scenes afterwards? Or would you rather it continued for another 10 years, alongside One Piece? What kind of story would you go with to make prolonging it plausible? My personal favorite would probably be a time skip, seeing the current main cast as grown ups and Naruto as Hokage for a few more years would definitely satisfy my inner fanboy the most. How about you?
In this week's chapter there's a color page with anime announcement stuff on it. I asked vox to give us a short summary of what's on it to share with all of you, so here you go:
Hello everyone! Voxanimus, your FT translator here. This week's chapter had a rather exciting announcement for those of you saddened by the fact that the FT anime got the D.Gray Man treatment. It seems that the weekly anime is starting up again this coming April! The main cast's seiyuu are all reprising their roles, and the original director, Shinji Ishihara, is also returning. The preview announcement includes a few shots of the updated character models the series will be using, which you can view here.
As of right now, they are keeping further details under wraps, but the announcement does heavily allude to the fact that the series may not begin exactly where it left off, i.e., in the middle of the Grand Magic Games. They do say that they will continue to provide more and more information in subsequent weeks, which we will of course provide you with as it becomes available. I'm pretty excited about this announcement, to be honest; it's not everyday that an anime that has been effectively canceled for over a year starts up again. What are your thoughts? Leave a comment!
Phew, we're finally done. We've been working on this volume during the breaks between Jump issues for the past couple weeks, and we're really happy to have managed it within our self-set deadline. Feel free to treat this as early Christmas gifts - and what's there better for Christmas than a whole Volume of shocking, thrilling, terrifying (and sometimes surprisingly dirty) Zombie stories?
I know what you're thinking, this would've been so much cooler if we had released it on Halloween. Sadly we only discovered the volume around then, so we didn't manage it in time. Besides, it's kind of befitting for Christmas as well, what with all the theme of being resurrected from the dead, not unsimilar to what this holiday's protagonist is believed to have accomplished by many.
Unless, of course, you do it like me and celebrate only the food and the presents around this time of year. In that case, be my guests brothers and sisters - there's nothing better than some creepy stories around this time of the year, am I right or am I right? Watched Black Christmas the other night. Damn, what a nice movie.
And no, it wasn't what you're thinking now, pervs. Though, that said, some of the series in this volume are quite 'hentai', so don't read it at work or with your grandma behind you - it's NSFW.
Anyway, I'm rambling too much. About the manga - It's essentially a collection of short stories - 8 of them in total. You probably won't recognize many of the mangakas of the individual series, but they're really awesome nonetheless. Particularly the 3rd, 5th and 6th were my favorites, but let us know in the comments which you liked best. For the big names, the volume also features 3 AMAZING illustrations. Careful though, they're not for you if you're touchy when it comes to gore. And by gore I mean GORE. In caps. They were drawn by these guys: Hiroe Rei (Black Lagoon), Samura Hiroaki (Blade of the Immortal) and Matsumoto Jiro (Freesia).
While we're at it - a gigantic shout-out to our translator Rinjikou! Thank you man, we wouldn't have managed this without you. You translated the whole volume in rocket-speed and we're really looking forward to working on another obscure series or two with you in the future. Also big thanks to Gambler, who helped me redraw some of the most annoying pages of this volume - you really saved me from tearing my hair out, that you did.
We really enjoyed working on this volume though, don't get me wrong. We're big fans of one-shots and short series to begin with, so this volume was just a lot of fun. Smoky did a great job at finding different fonts for each series, appropriate for the style of the series and as close to the original Japanese fonts as possible. We also had quite some fun translating some of the more challanging titles. Check out the images below, they show the original and beneath that the translated version you'll find on the reader:
Finally, we'd like to say - yes, there will be Naruto this week, stop nagging about it. No wait, I meant to say - we at MangaStream want to wish you happy holidays (whatever you're celebrating) and a happy new year. We hope you enjoy this volume as much as we did! And yes, there's going to be one more issue of Jump this year, please read the previous blog entry to find out more about that. Now - I'm off! Time to overeat!
Every year, Jump has 4 scheduled breaks. Though there can be irregular breaks, they are incredibly rare - iirc the last one was during the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in 2011. Individual series can take a week (or more) off any time, usually because the mangaka need extra time for research or have health issues, but the entire magazine normally only goes on break when there are national holidays.
These are the approximate times, the specific dates are different every year, naturally.
Issue #04-05 -> third week of December
Issue #06-07 -> first week of January
Issue #22-23 -> last week of April
Issue #36-37 -> first week of August
As you can see, the issues all have a double number, hence why we call them double issues. We've tried explaining how this all works many times in the past, including drawing sketches and whatnot, but
many some people still misunderstood what double issue means, so I figured I'd give it one more try here.
There's 52 weeks in a year and WSJ is a weekly series, hence every issue is labelled with a number. However, they don't correspond with the actual weeks of the year. WSJ's year begins in December. Don't ask me why. At the time of writing this, December 18th, we're already on Issue #4-5. Also, have you ever noticed how at the end of some monthly series, like Claymore, it says "To be continued in the March issue" or something along the lines? Well, the March issue is released sometime in early February and just covers the period until March.
In order to not break the naming pattern, the issues preceeding a holiday receive two numbers, covering for two weeks effectively, they are what we call double issues. Now, I know it may seem natural to assume that they also must contain two chapters of everything to 'make up' for the lack of Jump in the following week - but that is not so.
This is something that really bothers me when people complain about it. "Why don't they draw a 2nd chapter!" Because it's a lot of work, obviously. It's almost like asking why they don't just draw the whole story in one night and get over with it already. Why? Because they're 'only' human, and already work crazy hours. Because you can't force creativity, and because they also have a right to have some time off with their families. Most fans are completely understanding of this though, which is much appreciated. :)
So yeah, if it hasn't been clear yet - there's only one chapter in double issues, just like there's only one chapter in regular issues. Besides, if there really were two chapters of every series in Jump for those weeks, the already phone book like shape of the magazine would turn into something that could easily kill you if it fell on your head...
Now, let's see what to expect this year. Issue #04-05 was released today, meaning the following week there's usually no Jump. However, due to various circumstances, this rule doesn't always hold true during the Christmas holidays. In the past few years we usually got the next issue (#06-07) extra early, I personally expect it between December 26th and 28th, but take that as an educated guess, nothing's confirmed. If I remember correctly, issue #8 came out on January 15th last year, so there was quite a long break and it's likely to happen the same way this year again.
Finally, I'd just like to ask everyone to be patient. We have no influence on when chapters come out, but rest assured we always release them within hours after we receive them, even during the holidays. And about the long break, well, that's a yearly thing, unfortunately. Maybe we can collect a few great series as a community that we can recommend to others.
I'll begin - everyone who calls themselves a manga enthusiast should have read the Golden Age arc in Berserk!
PS: To answer some typical questions that follow posts like the one above:
Jump = Weekly Shonen Jump = One Piece, Naruto, Bleach, etc - for more info, google which series are in the magazine.
No, double issues really don't have two chapters in them. Yes, that sucks indeed.
No, we don't know when Hunter X Hunter will return yet. The rumors you heard about it coming back in December were fake.
No, you can't have my number or be my butt buddy.
No, Fairy Tail is not in WSJ, and I'm not 100% sure about its schedule, so I didn't mention it above. But the magazine it's in also takes a week off during the national holidays.
First things first - this rant is in no way intended to criticize Oda's genius. I'm sure he had his reasons for Luffy to announce that he wants to find 10 nakama in the very first chapter of the series. Most probably it was intended to make us speculate about who's likely to join throughout the series - that is until all 10 are gathered, though even then, 10 was somewhat ambiguous - does it include himself? do previous 'nakama' count? can it be more than 10? We don't quite know how exact and precise the statement was, and that's not what this post is about anyway.
One thing, however, is seemingly clear to all of us - there will be at least one more new nakama to join the Straw Hats, and the speculation regarding who it will be is driving me nuts sometimes and is often quite frustrating, to say the least.
Every time a new, interesting (or even minor) character is introduced, there will be at least one person pointing out that this character will DEFINITELY be the next Straw Hat member. Every time an old character is reintroduced or shown after the time skip, it's the same story. Even characters that obviously won't join the crew, like Princess Shirahoshi, seem to gather a whole following of fanboys (and girls) who argue that they will definitely join the crew until the very end - that is, until the Straw Hats say bye to them an leave the island. (Why it was obvious? She's a giant fucking mermaid (who can't even board their ship), plus a princess, plus lacks (at least) one important criterion that all Straw Hats have in common).
I want to take a moment to briefly look at each of the Straw Hat members and point out what makes them special.
Luffy - He's the undisputed protagonist, the captain, and he'll definitely become the Pirate King - 'nuff said.
Zoro - He wants to become the best swordsman in the world - the reason is the promise with Kuina and his own ambitions. Luffy helped him get out of a troublesome situation and they've been nakama since.
Nami - Her dream is to draw a map of the world. She has a sad past (Arlong Pirates, Belle-Mère, village held hostage). Luffy fights to liberate Nami.
Usopp - His dream is to become a brave warrior of the sea, like his dad. He has a sad past (Mom dead, Dad left him). Luffy helps him defend his treasure (the village) against the Black Cat Pirates.
Sanji - His dream is to find the All Blue. He has a tragic incident in his past (almost starved to death) and Luffy helps him defend the Baratie against Don Krieg.
Chopper - He sets out to sea to become a pirate because Dr. Hiluluk (his adoptive father) explained to him how great pirates are, and to be with and experience adventures with his nakama - having found nakama for the first time in his life. Luffy helps him beat up the man who made fun of and killed Dr. Hiluluk.
Robin - Her dream is to find the Rio Poneglyph and unveil the forgotten history. She has a sad past (Ohara, Buster Call, always on the run) and Luffy and the others fight to get her back from the government, returning her will to live.
Franky - His dream is to sail throughout the Grand Line on his dream ship as its shipwright. He has a sad past (Tom's death, feeling guilty). Luffy helps him escape from Enies Lobby along with Robin.
Brook - His dream is to meet with Laboon one more time. He has a sad past (Crew dead, alone for decades). Luffy fights to return his shadow, allowing him to join the SH's and overcome his loneliness.
Now, what do they ALL have in common? A goal, a sad past and they join after the SH's helped them win their battles. Those are also the three criteria that all possible future members have to meet for them to be real Straw Hat nakama material.
This also explains why Vivi was never going to stay with them long-term. She had the sad past, in the sense that Alabasta was in trouble and she also had a fight they could help her with; but she has no dream beyond being with her newly-made nakama. She's not like Robin or Chopper either, for whom having real nakama is something new and part of their dream - she had friends before, still has them, and she had a fine childhood, too. Her 'dream' was always fixing up Alabasta and after that was done, it became maintaining the peace there and taking care of it. She had no reason to go with Luffy, other than enjoying being with the SH's.
Now, while these are criteria that make characters likely, there are also those that make characters unlikely. One of them is - does it make sense? No, seriously. People keep bringing Law up, but the guy has his own pirate crew, with his own unique nakama there, and never in a million years will he join the Straw Hats. Why should he? What would happen to his crew? There's simply no need to. Is he cool and awesome? Of course. But he can be that without being part of this crew - he's still part of the manga, but for some people that doesn't seem to be enough. As for me - I much prefer him in the role of an ally who is a Shichibukai and has a powerful crew of his own, than him becoming a permanent member.
Besides - abilities are also important, and with Chopper, we already have a doctor. Sure, he has more skills than that, and is also smart and all that, but that doesn't make him fit in any more. It's like when people asked for Ace to join way back in the day. That was also completely unlikely, given his admiration for Whitebeard, being his own independent character, and there being no way in the world that he would accept Luffy as his 'captain'.
And now this week I read lots of comments calling for Sabo to join. And Koala, too. Seriously? Those guys are with the Revolutionary army, they have their own agendas, they have their own nakama; why would they? Do they even fulfill the criteria? Sure, Koala used to, for example - but now she obviously doesn't anymore. Other people helped her overcome her trauma, others helped her fight her battles and her dreams we know nothing of, but it's clear they are going to have to do with the Revolutionary Army, since she's in that club already - why would she join the SH's? I won't even begin with Sabo...
Anyway, this became a pretty long rant and all, but the main point was - please use your brains before shouting 's/he is gonna be the next nakama for sure' every time a character is introduced, it's giving me a headache reading that stuff every time. Of coure it's fun to speculate and with Oda, anything can happen. He could even deviate from his patterns - though it's unlikely to say the least; but for most characters that are called 'next nakama' by many, it just makes so much more sense to not join. They are great characters without joining the Straw Hats, and that is something I wish more people would realize.
Now, feel free to rip holes into my 'analysis' (aka rant), and I'd be really happy to see more popular 'next nakama' theories torn apart (Kinemon anyone?) in the comments below!
That's right. We don't discriminate against zombies. But anyway...
Folks, we really need one or two good redrawers to join us and help with the weekly chapters. We need you to be free on Wednesday and Friday early mornings (GMT) in order to help speed things up. Also, we've prepared a test page that we'd like you to take a stab at. Essentially, you need to remove all the text on it and replace those areas with art that looks as close to what the original would be like as possible. You can get the page here: http://i.imgur.com/XBnhqEO.png
If you feel up to the task, submit your result to [email protected] and tell us a little about your availability, timezone, and anything else you think might be important to mention. And for the love of science, don't submit anything if your program of choice is MS Paint...
Anyway, thanks to everyone checking this out and giving it a try, we appreciate it.
Can't believe it's been almost a year since we released the last chapter...
Ah well. In brief - the translator we had for the series went MIA and it's pretty difficult to find a new translator for such a margin series. However, we actually managed to finally find one, so a big shout out to Voxanimus - thanks to him we're able to continue working on the series again.
With the chapter we just released, 11, the first volume of the series is complete. We'll be starting on the 2nd volume shortly and hopefully be able to deliver chapters without any major breaks again. Enjoy!
I had this hilarious, well-thought-out (did I use too many hyphens here? I have a feeling I did, but I digress...), witty rant prepared to commemorate the first AoT: Before the Fall chapter. But I'm a bit under the weather and my lazy gene is kicking in high gear. So I'll leave you simply with these wise words of wisdom: OMFG NU AoT SERIEZ!!!111!!!
So today just happened to be one of those days. Our raw provider, while inches from home, dropped the issue in a gnarly puddle. Most of the issue was ruined beyond repair. We managed to somewhat salvage naruto but it was super smudgy so it's below our usual quality. The rp is going to pick up another copy first thing in the morning and we'll re-release a proper version along with Bleach and One Piece (it's just too much work and manpower to edit a page that's been smudged with water). We'll get them out ASAP. In the meantime, Ikore and kage will dance for your amusement. Feel free to throw money, paper or coins, and sharp objects at them. In fact, I encourage the latter.
Wow, I can't believe it's been almost half a year already since we last released a chapter of Green Blood. Time sure flies, huh.
Well, I have no excuses, really. It's been the usual. You know, personal life getting in the way, having to find a new translator - all that usual jazz.
We do have something to make up for it though. That's right, we've been working on these like madmen this past week and are now proud to deliver a whooping 5 new chapters to you! Chapters 24 to 27 cover the rest of volume 3, while chapter 28 marks the beginning of volume 4.
Also some more news for you - the series officially ended a couple months ago in Japan with chapter 49. In other words, we have 21 chapters to go for the awesome finale of the series! And don't be upset 'cause you'll miss all the amazing art. The mangaka actually started working on a new series last month, one about Roman warriors, which looks equally as boss as Green Blood. We'll probably get all over it once we're done with Green Blood, but no promises made!
Here's your chance to help out! We're looking for some new faces to join our team and assist us with the series that have a tendency to lag behind for a variety of reasons (time, resources, fapping, etc).
We're looking for a permanent translator for UQ Holder. We are looking for someone willing and eager to translate UQ Holder to lessen the burden on our translators. If you're skilled and would like to help out with this, please send an email to [email protected] with a brief bio including any and all experience in translating manga.
Edit: Thanks for the applications everyone, we've found our translator: Southrop! He'll be translating UQ Holder starting chapter 4.
cleaners and/or typesetters to help out with monthly releases.
We can't train you from scratch, but we can help you refine your
cleaning/typesetting if your performance meets our rigid standards. To apply, send an e-mail with a few samples of what you feel best represents your work. Any previous experience is a huge plus, any need-to-know information about you (nothing too personal if you don't feel like it, but hey, if you want to confide in us about how you still sleep with Mr. Snuggles we won't judge you...too much).
Edit: Thanks for applying! The cleaner position has been closed due to overwhelming number of applicants.
Redrawers for both weekly releases (Naruto, Bleach, One Piece, Fairy Tail, etc...) and monthlies.
Mainly we need artists for this, specific training/tips regarding techniques on how to redraw manga can be given if we see the seed of dedication and motivation sprouting from you (wow, that sounded poetic...please give me a second as I pat myself on my back).
For these positions please visit our recruitment page.
Since so many of you have been asking for updates on Jump and even more complained about the lack of it while it's out on other websites, we figured some things should be clarified.
Jump was on break last week due to Japanese holidays and so the new chapters of Naruto and One Piece are scheduled for today. In fact, we're currently slowly working on them. Slowly because many of our staff are away for various reasons, most of them simply being on holidays. In other words, it'll still take us a while, as unfortunate as that may be. Don't expect it before tomorrow morning GMT.
As for the leak of the super early Jump over the weekend on other websites? See, what happened was that the Chinese official publisher, who gets the official chapters way in advance much like Viz in America, leaked those super early chapters. Whether it was the actual publisher or some individual within the company or w/e, we have no idea. Several groups went ahead and slapped a shitty Japanese -> Chinese -> English translation on those leaked chapters and released them. We'd rather not tread into such murky waters so we'll just continue doing things our usual way.
Thanks for your patience guys and we'll get the newest releases out as quick as humanly possible.
The End Of Yet Another Great Series
I know, I know. We haven't worked on this series in a long time. Still, it's one of those series that goes way back for some of our staff, as far as the good ol' Binktopia days even. As a team, we never forget the series we once worked on together and when they come to an end we try and release those final chapters in a combination of 'honoring' the series and its mangaka(s) and honoring the staff members that used to work on them. Sounds a bit corny, but whatever, that's how it is.
With that said, look forward to the last and final chapter of Soul Eater - now available for your reading pleasure here on MangaStream.
So the title is self explanatory. Those of you familiar with how it works, however, should be aware of the small possibility that the next issue may in fact arrive extraordinarily early. There's no way to predict this other than for you to go out in public, drop your pants (or shorts), bend over and recite the alphabet backwards. If you do this (which I highly recommend) you'll without a doubt acquire the knowledge you seek. Not just for JUMP, but for life.
Stay tuned throughout the week as I'll be sure to post any relevent updates if and when they arrive.
Edit: For those of you unaware, FT and HSDK is on hiatus this week. Again, small possibility of it landing but don't hold your breath.
Sad news for all you Deadman Wonderland fans out there; we're about to release the final chapter. It's been a great run since 2007 and all of us at MangaStream are saddened to see it end but at the same time we're happy to have worked on this outstanding series. Personally, I haven't been involved in working on that many chapters, so I asked two of the main people involved to give their comments.
ikore, the driving force behind the editing and generally in charge of the project:
I scanlated Deadman Wonderland from the moment I started scanlation, working on it until Mangastream picked it up. Fast forward a year and a few months, I find myself working on it again. I'm glad I could work on this all the way to the final chapter. Thanks for reading!
waychanger, our most awesome translator:
It was my suggestion for Mangastream to pick up Deadman Wonderland when I joined MS more than 2 years ago (at the time, it was essentially the only manga I read that Mangastream didn't already carry), and now, finally, I am happy to see it through to completion, many chapters and an incredibly long (mangaka) hiatus later. I hope everyone has enjoyed following this manga along with myself and the rest of the Mangastream team. Thanks!
Did the series get the ending it deserves? Let us know what you think!
That's right, the long wait will be finally over soon. And before anyone else points it out - yes, I'm a week late with this, but I just found out and I'm super psyched about it, so cut me some slack.
From the looks of it, the new season will cover all the way up to Takamura vs Eagle and, of course, include Ippo vs Sawamura. There's no word on how long exactly it will run though, but those two fights are worth it alone and it's gonna be awesome, I just know it.
There is only one thing that kind of worries me; and that is whether the new voice actor will do coach Kamogawa justice. If you haven't heard, the old voice actor, Kenji Utsumi, died of cancer this past June, aged 75.
To answer the inevitable nagging: No, we have not stopped working on the manga. And since I'm tired of people asking us for Ippo I'll even let you in on a secret. Or well, I'll tell you something about the internal process of getting the series out for everyone's reading pleasure.
We've been working with Ignitione-One (another scanlation team) since we picked up the series about 100 chapters ago. They have actually worked on it for science knows how many chapters; 500? Lots. Someone go on their reader, find out and be easily the smartest person in the comments list please? But anyway, the point is that two parties are involved in delivering a new chapter. They have since been responsible for the translation and the proofreading of said translation, while we've been acquiring the magazine, cleaning the chapters, redrawing and typesetting - and of course hosting it.
All of us at mangastream have tremendous respect for the work they do, how natural and realistic they make the dialogs sound, and we'd not want to work with any other translators on this series. Unfortunately, they've been rather busy in the last couple weeks and months, with all sorts of private troubles and problems. Essentially, we're waiting for translations to arrive in order to release more chapters. There's no way to speed up the process at our end and thus there's nothing we can do. All we can do, just like you readers, is wait - and occasionally send out naggy emails.
Since I know you don't have their email addresses and wouldn't dream of sharing those, I'll share something else with you. This is their forum. I'm posting it for two reasons. One, it's a pretty fine forum to discuss anything related to Ippo and a bunch of other things and two, you can nag at them instead of at us - letting them know how much you want new chapters. However, please understand that it's not like they consciously choose to be "slow". So keep that in mind, be respectful and encouraging, instead of brainless, raging and annoying.
And since this blog post is getting way too long now anyway, I'll close it by saying: YATTA YATTA, NEW IPPO COMING SOON!
PS: Who else is gonna rewatch the first two seasons in the meantime? *Raises both hands* "Me me me!"